A philosophy is a natural product of the intellect. Every human has a philosophy by which it lives, an intellectual declaration of a personal relationship with all other life, a statement of expectations and obligations, a pronouncement of self. That philosophy furnishes the very basis for personal behavior, and it establishes the value of a human to itself and all other life.
Early humans used spiritual guidance. Every tribe had its own version. Primitive tribal philosophers premised supernatural beings who demanded certain behaviors and promised swift and severe punishment for infractions. Later philosophers premised their ilk as superior beings who had the ability to create truth from within their own minds. Such philosophers, though many were intellectually gifted, forsook reality, believing the human mind can transcend observation. They created philosophy through their own conjecture and imagination, building great intellectual castles on highly questionable foundations. Most modern philosophers synthesize their philosophy from the tenets of their elitist ideology (PC).
But the universe is real, life is real, and the human is real. The philosophy of the human should be real also. What makes a philosophy real? There is a simple test. If the logic that supplies a philosophical expectation or behavioral conclusion is based on verifiable fact, it is likely to be real. The shorter the chain of logic from the provable premise, the more apt the conclusions are true. If the logic has no real basis (is based on dogma), its conclusions, though possibly true, are likely to be at least misleading and are probably false. All existing philosophies are based on dogma.
An alternative is presented: a philosophy developed directly from real knowledge, in most cases with a single logical step. This philosophy is dynamic. It adjusts to new knowledge as it is developed. It gives purpose, direction and reason to life. It supplies a basis for human moral and ethical conduct. It includes the entire ecosystem.
Every human is a philosopher. Each has its own unique viewpoint of its position in and relationship with the universe, and all other things within it. The basis for that viewpoint is the particular genetic instinctive configuration (see The Human Brain) of that individual. This basic set of drives and moods are relatively fixed within the individual throughout its life. The behavior resulting from these instincts, however, is intellectually modified by the application of experience (training, education and direct experience). These individual composite (instinct and intellect) philosophies are quite dynamic. Each philosophy changes with each bit of experience and the behavioral response changes along with it.
The behavior of an individual at any point in time is the result of the application of its philosophy of life to the current set of environmental conditions. The collective behaviors within a group, resulting from a summation of the individual philosophies, is called its culture. A group culture requires a group philosophy. A group philosophy is a subset of the individual philosophies, since it covers only those behaviors which the group requires for community welfare, cultural advancement, cooperation and cohesion. Once these are satisfied, the balance of possible personal behaviors become a matter of choice.
Imagination and conjecture are basic intellectual traits (genetically determined functional abilities) of the human. Although these processes may be found in many of the other higher animals, they are emphasized in the human. These traits developed through evolution, primarily among predators, for the rapid solution of immediate and objective survival problems. Both consist of memory distortion mechanisms whereby a real scene in memory is warped in order to visualize possibilities other than reality. Predators developed this capability for use in predicting prey reaction. Quite complex intellectual functions provide the behavioral decision, since it will rest on an analysis of the current scene, alternative imagined reactive scenes in which the prey takes various evasive actions, and scenes from past memory allowing estimation of prey reaction time, evasive ability and speed.
Unique to the human, however, is the question that starts with why. Why do things work the way they do? Why can't they be made to be some other way? Why can't this particular scene be modified for greater success?
So the human developed tools, clothing, shelter and weapons, first by visualizing then by building. If errors were made, they were immediately obvious so they were quickly located and fixed. Imagination and conjecture are wonderful tools for technology since very quickly and definitely it can be learned whether a given idea is successful, or should be discarded. Wherever the results may be measured , imagination and conjecture are very useful and can be used at will. The end measurement screens out the failures, hopefully before anyone gets hurt.
When did it start? Where in the development of the human did someone first look up into the sky at all the stars on a dark night and ask: Why is this and how do I fit in? Whenever it was, and it was quite possibly almost two million years ago with an early Homo erectus, it was a question without an answer. So he made one up. And we've been doing it ever since. The only change in the entire period has been a shift from imaginary supernatural beings who were all knowing and all powerful to an imaginary concept that man is supernatural and therefore can create knowledge in his own mind without reference to reality. First it was various spirits and gods. Then it was Aristotle, Kant and Marx. And now it is anyone with a Ph.D. who can also cite at least thirty others with the same degrees in the same subjects and with the same academic elitist (PC) viewpoint.
The first Homo erectus who tired of the rigors and dangers of the hunt and found that it was easier and more profitable to wear weird feathered costumes, burn evil smelling materials and chant gibberish while ordering others around, started a line of work that has profited many to this day. Within a very short time these witch doctors (shaman, spiritual leaders, psychologists, philosophers, politicians, etc.) began to believe their own baseless conjecture. They still do to this day. The various story lines have shifted, but the methods and attitudes remain unchanged. Without exception they are smug, righteous, and arrogant in their dogma. Every culture contains a sizeable segment of these slick-talking free-loaders.
A few of the more objective and advanced members of this cult have begun to embrace genetics and evolution. They point out, quite eloquently, that Darwinian evolution shows how human ethics have evolved during human development and that it continues to evolve to this day. There are two recent texts on 'Darwinian natural right' : The Biological Ethics of Human Nature by Larry Arnhart and Taking Darwin Seriously by Michael Ruse. Both are interesting. The subject matter is much the same in both. Both authors are excellent in their research and in their presentation. Both show how cultures evolved from a historical perspective, and either text is excellent.
Unfortunately, although Darwin visualized the evolution process, he did not have the knowledge of genetic structure and function that we have today. He understood how form and function evolved from the standpoint of the organisms but he was ignorant of the molecular process by which that evolution functioned. He could tell the story of how it occurred in historical terms, but he had no inkling of the molecular mechanism and its functional laws. The same applies for his profound ideas on the evolution of culture (where a culture is the collection of behaviors - the ethics and morality - of a group).
With the ancient human, the same intellectual mechanism that was so successful in solving survival problems was also used in approaching cultural problems. Early man had no way of differentiating between the objective and subjective. Even today that concept is widely misunderstood. Tribes were growing larger and more culturally complex. Culture became the same cut and try process as the evolutionary process which had formed the human. A tribe that was governed well, regardless of the basis for the culture, survived. Others, even though they may have been more thoughtfully governed, often failed. Cultural behaviors which provided tribal survival often resulted in individual misery. There was no real basis for culture so dogma became the norm. Darwinian theory became as applicable to human culture as it was to human form, in fact the two are so intertwined they appear to be part and parcel of the same evolution. The result is that the same description may be applied to both the human genome and the human culture. Apparently most of both are sheer garbage, collections of evolutionary debris.
Genetic evolution is not a planned process. It has no goals, no purpose, and no plans. Through random changes the organism is modified. Death and destruction is then used to sort out the defectives. A complex function developed in this manner is riddled with errors and inconsistencies. There are more than 30,000 cataloged genetic defects in the human genome - and the search is only beginning.
Cultural evolution is not a planned process. It has no goals, no purpose, and no plans. Through random changes the culture is modified. Death and destruction is then used to sort out the cultural errors. A complex function developed in this manner is riddled with errors and inconsistencies. There are no cataloged cultural defects in the human culture - they are all accepted under the banner of multiculturalism, itself an intellectual abortion.
Neither process is intellectual (does not have goals or plans). Consequently the product of either process falls for short of the desired. The history of both the form and culture of the human shows a chaotic evolution that was mindless and without goal or purpose. It provided a cut and try process which thrived on death and misery. Intellectual control of both gives the human species an evolution that is planned and reasoned, one which provides the species with goals and fulfillment as opposed to blind survival. The human must gain that intellectual control over both processes.
Darwinian cultural reasoning is that if one can follow the
natural cultural development of the human, then one can infer a natural
morality. There are two major problems with this approach:
What we must concentrate on is what the culture of the human (and therefore its proper individual behavior) should be given the physical reality of its evolutionary mechanism and its fit in the universe. This concept projects a cultural eugenics for the intellectual control of the evolution of culture in the same manner that eugenics projects an intellectual control of the evolution of the human form.
The idiocy of allowing natural evolution to provide the human species with both form and culture must be recognized. All of its form and cultural ills are caused by this idiot process. The human is intellectual and therefore capable of analysis, goal setting, and planning. The human must work toward optimizing both its form and its culture.
Biologists have learned to move from the organism to the molecular level in their analysis of life forms. The form of the organism is controlled by the molecules in its DNA. Those who seek wisdom in the behavior of the human must do the same. Once having ascertained the rules for proper behavior of the human through determining the basic forces of life on a molecular level, an analysis of the history of culture from that viewpoint is entirely different. It will show the direction and magnitude of human cultural error that was caused by the natural (idiot) process of cultural evolution.
Only verifiable fact is acceptable as a basis for philosophy. Conjecture, imagination, fantasy, spirituality, fiction, ideology, unbased philosophy or any other form of dogma must not be accepted as truth on which to base philosophical reasoning and conclusions. The human is capable of discovering truth
AN ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN VALUE
The religions provide a living philosophy. Ethical and moral behavior, within the teachings of the religion, are clear. The member of a religious group who follows the teachings of the religion in all of its behavior is moral. But many, and the numbers are growing, do not wish to follow religious dogma. Some feel that it is too restrictive. Others believe that it conflicts with scientific knowledge to the point of absurdity. Then there are always those who are not willing to follow any set of community rules. Religious leaders warn that the rejection of religion will result in a cultural disintegration. Without religious belief, they claim, there is no restriction on personal behavior. The human, they say, is prone to sin. It must have a reason not to sin. The religion, they insist, gives a basis for living a moral life. Discard it and morality will disappear. This is obviously true. It is true because when the religion is discarded and nothing takes its place, morality in behavior has no basis. The American cultural degeneration of the past 60 years is sufficient evidence to believe so.
Every human is a philosopher. The philosophy of the member of a religious group is that of the religion. The living philosophy of the individual comes in the religious package. He need not form his own. Acceptance and faith is all that's needed. The religious philosophy provides not only the instructions for moral behavior but with the reason for moral behavior, and it details the punishment that is certain if not followed. It establishes purpose in life and proceeds with instructions on how to live it.
Other philosophies come from non-spiritual thinkers. The academic elitist ideology now prevalent is an amalgamation of these. But the rank and file who are not religious have only a philosophy of instant gratification. Without a living philosophy, it becomes every human for itself.
Fortunately, none of this need be. The nature that created us, by the very process of our creation, provides us with very precise rules of living and an incredible purpose for being. No human should lack pride in being. No human should lack for behavioral direction.
First, consider the past and present of the human and then look at the future possibilities.
The Past, a series of singularities
The natural order of the universe provides certain expectations. These expectations are not uniform. Some occurrences are almost certain, most are quite common, others are rare, and a very few are very rare. A miracle, a usually spiritual term, is an occurrence that would be totally unexpected. In mathematical terms, a miracle is an occurrence with a probability of zero. A singularity, the more usual word for something unexpected, could be described in mathematical terms as an occurrence with a very small probability. Singularities may be expected within the natural order of the universe (they do happen) and some of those may be so singular as to approach a probability of zero. The distinction between such a singularity and a miracle can become quite small, itself approaching zero.
To the gambler, a singularity is a "long shot". He learns through experience that "long shots" are very difficult to predict but they do happen, though rarely. Betting on the slowest horse to win, even though the payoff would be huge, is expecting a singularity (and often being disappointed). The gambler also knows that even more rare than predicting a "long shot" would be the prediction of two such "long shots" occurring in a fixed order, such as predicting the slowest horse to come in first and the second slowest horse coming in second in the same race with an all or nothing bet, .
So even though the opportunity is huge, such as the size of the universe, and the time period of that opportunity is also huge, such as the time period during the fifteen billion years of the universe, one still would not expect that several singularities (or miracles), each dependent on those before, would ever appear in succession. Yet that is exactly what has happened.
It is generally believed that our universe began about fifteen billion years ago. That beginning has been visualized in a number of ways but most think in terms of an explosive (sudden) singularity in space, matter and time, one that, in fact, created space, matter and time. Before fifteen billion years ago there was no universe, no space, no time and no matter. In fact the phrase 'before fifteen billion years ago" has no meaning because there was no time then. There is no "before". At the first interval of time there was everything. There was no prior time and even if there had been, nothing existed.
The birth of the universe is singularity number one.
The future is even more nebulous than the beginning. Some believe the universe will expand forever. Others believe that it will expand, like the stretching of a huge spring, to some point in time in the future then fall back, eventually passing through the eye of the needle from whence it came. All seem to see a future of at least another 35 billion years for the universe. As with the beginning, only speculation exists about the long term future.
Our sphere of some comprehension is the universe from its formation to about 35 billion years in the future. Our immediate sphere of interest, and one in which we have a large amount of factual knowledge, starts with the formation of the earth and extends until its demise, however that may happen. A philosophy which can cover that period, one which is dynamic in its reception of real knowledge as quickly as it is developed, should be adequate at the present time.
During the early life of the universe, matter was simple. Much of the matter in the universe is still simple. When the suns formed they exerted great heat and pressure on the material in their centers. They became huge crucibles for the construction of heavier and more complex matter. Our earth was formed about five billion years ago. It was formed from the debris from an ancient sun that had lived its life and exploded long before. From this origin came our heavy materials such as iron, carbon and lead, matter which can only be formed within the extreme temperatures, pressures and heat within suns. The earth will live, barring collision with space debris or internal explosion, until the demise of our sun. It is believed that our sun will be stable for another five billion years.
This earth that we accept as ordinary is quite unusual. It came from a recycling of matter, thereby containing the heavier elements needed for life. It is the correct distance from a sun that has particular characteristics. It is a correct size to hold an atmosphere and to contain surface water. Even in our own solar system there are no other planets, or any other bodies of matter, which can naturally sustain life. Life, as we know it, is severely damaged with any temperature above about 150 degrees F and loses function at about freezing. No other location in the solar system can sustain life. Throughout a universe of extremes there are few locations that sustain that narrow band of temperatures. Even with billions of suns in billions of galaxies, the occurrence of another earth would be a singularity, one with an extremely low probability.
The occurrence of a 'perfect' planet as the birth place of life is singularity number two.
Life (DNA), the very same life that all living things share today (see OneLife ), happened about a billion years after the formation of the earth. The odds against it ever occurring are staggering. The earth was an ideal place for it to happen, with millions of cubic miles of free water, all saturated with complex chemicals, much of which was at the proper temperature, and with an atmosphere filled with carbon dioxide. Under these ideal conditions it took a billion years. It occurred only once, otherwise there would be many unrelated living strings of life. The probability of it occurring even that one time is infinitely small, so small that the probability of it occurring elsewhere in the universe is as small. Suddenly, as incredible as it sounds, an extremely complex form of matter not only occurred, that alone was a singularity, but it became alive. Unlike the rock, it reproduced itself. It is totally unlike all other matter in the entire universe.
This most singular of all is singularity number three, the birth of life.
In its beginning, life was fragile. It was so tiny that millions could fit on the head of a pen. It floated in a vast sea, unknowing, completely helpless, without senses, without protection of any sort, and totally dependent on chance for its nourishment and the extremely complex biological chemicals it needed for its replication. Yet it somehow survived under these incredibly adverse conditions.
The survival of life is singularity number four.
Then came evolution, an unlikely cause and effect process (see Evolution), a process that cannot exist without life and is therefore not visible in any other segment of the universe. Under the rigors of the evolutionary process, life requires a delicate balance in its reproductive strength. Only a reproductively fragile life can evolve, one that is easily bruised so that mutations will occur. Yet the reproductive process must be stable and strong enough for the strain to continue to live even with mutations occurring that diminish its numbers. Since life, even at its simplest, is very complex, most mutations will cause its death, the mutation acting as a wrench thrown into complex machinery. Only rare mutations will allow the new offspring to live. Fewer even yet are the mutations that aid in its survival. But some do and evolution begins anew with a new basis from which to evolve.
The simultaneous combination of an evolutionary process unique to life, a survivable environment, and a life that can survive its own reproductive error is singularity number five.
Life, with its companion process evolution, produced millions of species (self-replicating biological survival mechanisms) over the next four billion years. Millions of species exist even today. Random mutations provided many possible forms. The environment selected those features and combinations of features that could survive. Almost without exception, the survival features developed through evolution were effective survival tools only within the environment on earth. All, however, provide almost equal survivability, else they would have perished over these past four billion years and would not be visible today. Big teeth, claws, strength, ferocity, stamina, tough skin, running speed, etc. are all valid tools for survival. There is no evolutionary mechanism for producing a feature which allows more than needed for survival within the environmental niche of the organism. The nature of evolution is chaos squeezed through an environmental filter. Evolution does not think or plan or set goals. It does not seek perfection. It seeks nothing. It only happens. Its products may approach an ideal in survivability with respect to a given environmental niche, but they will always fall far short of that ideal. In fact if an organism should become better than required, its evolution is reversed and becomes degenerative. The only requirement for an organism is that overall it is adequate to survive.
It took four billion years of evolution to develop the human (see The Evolution of The Human), and the human has a characteristic that can transcend environment. Any environment. Anywhere in the universe. It is called intellect. Admittedly, the modern human is far more animal than intellectual. It must constantly struggle to overcome its animal qualities in order to make use of its intellect. Still, in the past, it has been able to do enough with its intellectual strength, in spite of its instinctive frailties, to become the dominant species on earth (and likely in the universe).
A very few other species will instinctively perform some acts that modify natural conditions (their environment) for their own use. Only the human, however, has the threshold of intellect required for the planned modification of natural processes. Since intellect is so scarce and there are so many other developmental means that insure survivability, then intellect itself was an accident, an extremely rare accident.
The development of intellect is singularity number six.
This is where the human now stands, in this vast continuity of time, looking back at the past in wonder, and trying to fathom the future. But the human and its intellect, is the center event in this chain of events, for it was with the human that matter began to be shaped so as to have purpose and value. Before the human, all matter blindly followed natural laws and processes. With the human came an entirely new function in the cosmos, the function of altering and redirecting natural processes and materials to give them purpose and value. It started with sharpening a stick to dig for roots and shaping a piece of stone to scrape a hide for use as clothing. It now extends to an intricate procedure of mining the ore, smelting it to purity, and shaping it into a vessel that can travel in space. Great rivers are now converted into giant machines that supply energy and water for millions of people. A small inner piece of a sun has been recreated into a tool for great energy production (and great destruction).
Before the human, survival was sought by many organisms, essentially all of the mobile biological mechanisms. With these others, however, the drive for survival was instinctive, a mechanism developed within the organisms by the relentless pressure of the evolution process. That same drive is still in the human, but with a new component. Intellect now provides an understanding of the old need for survival along with a new concept: that of species survival and the plight of all other forms of life in the ecosystem. The human realizes that even survival on this earth is not the final answer. Life in total is in jeopardy. A wayward comet could eliminate the fruits of four billion years of development in an instant. Unknown dangers lurk within the core of the earth itself. A wayward maniac with all of the power modern man has invented at his disposal, could eradicate all of life with but a touch of a button. Finally, the earth will someday be part of a brief but spectacular planetary nebula as the sun dies. Life on earth will then come to an end. And if all of these should be avoided, there are other dangers as yet unknown in the far distant future.
The human seeks survival and long term survival will require distribution of life throughout the universe. In the final analysis, it also may require a complete redesign of the universe to insure its strength and stability.
The human species also has major problems within itself. Through its intellect it has virtually eliminated the environmental element in its evolution equation. The resultant lop-sided evolution is now destructive as opposed to developmental (see The Degeneration of Man). Even with huge growth in technological skills, human cultural skills are decaying. Distorted form genetics are causing evermore survival problems requiring huge expenditures of the assets of the species in remaining well enough to function as human beings. Distorted instinctive mechanism genetics are stretching the human's ability to maintain civilization. More and more, force is required to maintain order. Huge defensive armies, police organizations and prisons are even now required, and the problem is worsening.
But the creative skills of the human species are only now awakening. The race is on. Will the human develop out of these problems before it succumbs to them? That is the question.
The Future, new singularities invented by the human
The natural process called evolution is about to be transformed by the human. The human will gain engineering control over the evolution process. No longer will the species suffer the death and misery caused by the environment weeding out the defectives, nor will the species continue to suffer the degeneration and indignities of a crippled evolution. Starting with the correction of all known genetic diseases, the human species will be the first to be freed from the bondage of a cruel and senseless natural process, all other forms of compatible life will follow soon after. Evolution will then be positive throughout the ecosystem, with every change made on the basis of improvement. It will be steady, since each positive modification is included in the next platform for which further improvement may be considered. All species will become dynamic, under constant upgrading.
The human intellect will be one of the major elements to be stabilized and improved. New neural mechanisms will be invented. Hybrid assists will be developed to improve communications, memory and depth of knowledge. The instincts will become conservative, strong and uniform. One generation may learn and allow the next generation to learn better. The idea of species has been expanded to include a dynamic intellectual organism, one that not only learns and understands, but one that can improve in those functions with each succeeding generation.
The most amazing 'singularity' of all is now in process. The concept of an intellectual organism that controls evolution, one that will redefine (redesign, redirect) itself and all other life, is incredible, but it will be implemented and it will be singularity number seven.
In the same manner that the invention of the lever and fulcrum improved human lifting ability, artificial intelligence is at hand to aid and improve the human intellect. Whereas the human must be trained to follow certain rules in logic and reason (such as always demanding provable premises before bothering with logical analysis and development), artificial intelligence may be constructed to follow those rules naturally. Machines do not have cranial limits in size, may be made blindingly fast, have error free large-scale memories, do not suffer from fatigue and passion and may be permanently attached to a particular function. In the same manner that elevators no longer need human operators, automobiles, ships and airplanes will soon be intelligent.
Space exploration is much simpler with machine intelligence. Future exploration in deep space will likely be done by intelligent space machines. And in the far future, entire planets may become intelligent, followed thereafter by solar systems and galaxies. The universe, in all its vast majesty, is but a senseless juggernaut of enormous energy and mass but without plan or goal. With the application of intellect, it can, someday, be tamed and trained into a process with value and purpose. That nebulous and incredible beginning of the universe may never be solved, but the future can become known and controlled.
Another 'singularity' is also even now in process. The human intellect, itself a singularity, will construct thinking machines that in many ways will far surpass human capability. Artificial intelligence will be singularity number eight.
Long before those futuristic ideas come to pass, the uniformity of the thinking machine will be used where objectivity, fairness and uniformity are most needed, especially in judicial and governing functions.
In summary: there have been six 'singularities' in the process from the beginning of the universe as we know it, to the present. Two more will transform the human from a creature of a small planet to a creature of the entire universe. It becomes quite obvious that the human species has great purpose, and each human is quite valuable, if it contributes. What greater purpose could life have? How could goals be any higher?
The universe, an incredible complex of matter, space, time and process, is without value or purpose - it merely is and does, and no more. Natural processes within the universe developed life. In the beginning life was nothing more than natural matter that could reproduce. The natural process of evolution then combined with this reproducing matter to develop many life forms (species of life). Many of these new life forms were no more than complex arrangements of matter that could survive. Evolution then developed a life form with intellect, an invention as far reaching as life itself.
The universe is non-thinking. It has no goals or plans. Other than a habitat for life, it has no value. It does, however, have order (spiced with a bit of chaos) and can therefore be understood. The human is a child of life, which in turn is a child of the universe. The universe has no voice and therefore cannot speak its behavioral requirements to the human, but the human has intellect and therefore can learn from (listen to) the universe. From this search into the universe for the answers to life, the following human philosophy emerges:
1. The magnificent and awe-inspiring universe is real and the
human must glory in that reality. The universe is consistent, reasonable and
understandable. It is toward this universe that the human must turn for all
knowledge. All truth is contained therein.